First all black town in Mississippi founded as Mound Bayou

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Isaiah Montgomery

Isaiah Montgomery, 1847-1924. Co-Founder Mound Bayou, Mississippi

Cleveland, Miss., July 13, 1887: Two former slaves, Isaiah Montgomery, 40, and his cousin, Benjamin Green, 33, have finally realized a dream they have had since childhood – to establish Mississippi’s first all black town complete with social, economic and political freedom.

Yesterday morning, part of their childhood dreams as young slaves became a reality. They founded their all-Negro community of Mound Bayou, some 10 miles north of here.

Both Montgomery and Green fervently believe true black freedom can be realized only in a segregated, all-black environment. The men contend that only under such racially supportive conditions can former slaves realize opportunities for individual advancement living alongside the white Southern society.

Ironically, Isaiah Montgomery is an ex-slave of the Confederate President Jefferson Davis family. Montgomery grew up on the Davis’ Hurricane Plantation at Davis Bend, 20 miles south of Vicksburg.

Jeff Davis’ brother, Joseph, who was 20 years older than Jeff and who ran the plantation, was a highly educated man and had what were considered unusual beliefs about slavery prior to the Civil War. He felt slaves would work harder if educated; he provided exceptional health care; and he taught the value of community living. So, Isaiah Montgomery began his education at an early age and studied diligently, often in the extensive Davis family library. He learned well. It was in that early education that ideas formed in his mind for a Mound Bayou-type settlement, or as he says, we want “to develop (a community) unencumbered by (racial) handicaps imposed on us by the dying traditions of the past.”

In December of last year, Montgomery and Green bought 840 acres of land from the Louisville-New Orleans & Texas Railroad for $7 an acre. That acreage would serve as the site of Mound Bayou.

This is certainly not the most hospitable land in the state. Only about 75 acres is immediately available for cultivation. The rest of the land is covered with dense brush and trees that can be traversed only with a hatchet or a machete. But the underbrush could be considered a minor problem compared to the bears, panthers and snakes that freely roam the area and, of course, there is the ever-present threat of swamp fever.

Both Montgomery and Green want Mound Bayou to be a sanctuary for black families and black culture for blacks everywhere.

Mounds-BayouTwelve black former slave families have already agreed to move in, build homes and make a historic go of it in this isolated, treacherous area of the Mississippi Delta.


For the next 40 years, these black colonists in Mound Bayou built what can only be described as a successful community. By 1907, it boasted a population of 4,000 people – 99.6 percent black. It had a train depot, a bank, a post office, many churches, numerous successful industries, a variety of stores and eateries, a newspaper, a telephone exchange and, eventually, a hospital. Mound Bayou was a thriving community in those beginning years.

Benjamin Green died early in the developmental period in 1896. Isaiah Montgomery died much later in 1924.

But, between 1940 and the late 1960’s, Mound Bayou began a slow decline. Of course, its decline was matched by virtually every other town in the Delta during those years.

Today, Mound Bayou’s 1,500 residents are struggling to survive. All industry is gone. Few stores remain. Even fewer jobs. Basically, it has become a noble and historic community effort that is weakening but not yet surrendering.

This community produced some extraordinary success stories during its heyday. Ben A. Green, son of the co-founder, graduated from Harvard Law School. He made this memorable observation about growing up in Mound Bayou: “Everything here was black, from the symbols of law and authority and the man who ran the bank down to the fellow who drove the road scraper. That gave us kids a sense of security and power and pride that colored kids don’t get anywhere else.”

Mound Bayou, Mississippi: a memorable part of all our Southern Memories.


  1. says

    A great Story, one that is worth telling. Also, this should not end at this time. everything possible should be done to make this story a larger one. In other words, make this town a LARGER TOWN.

    • says

      Thanks for your comment. There is no question Mount Bayou is an historic
      community and needs to be remembered. But, as is so often the case,
      historic preservation begins at the community level. Perhaps, it
      might be worthwhile to contact local residents in Mount Bayou to
      see what they are doing in terms of preservation and try to learn
      how non-residents might become involved with them. Thanks so much
      for your comment.
      Judd Hambrick

  2. says

    My father and mother raised us up on the plantation and there was 22 brother and sister down in Mississippi and I would like write a book on my life as and when I grew up on the plantation in 1960 to 1968 because was so sad for us all,” We had to work hard everyday.

    • says

      I’m glad the article brought back memories to you. 22 brothers and
      sisters. That’s quite a family. I encourage you to write a book
      on your Mount Bayou experiences. I visited Mount Bayou when writing
      this story. It has a history that should not be forgotten. Thanks
      for your comment.

      Judd Hambrick

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